torsdag, februar 06, 2014

Implementing hypermedia APIs and REST services with Mason

I am happy to announce that I have taken all the lessons learned during the last few years and stuffed it into a new JSON based mediatype for hypermedia APIs and REST services. The media type is application/vnd.mason+json or simply "Mason". There is an IANA registration for it pending.

With Mason you get hypermedia elements for linking and modifying data, features for communicating to client developers and standardized error handling. Mason is built on JSON, reads JSON, writes JSON and generally fits well into a JSON based eco-system.

Here is a simple example illustrating how a single issue from a fictive issue tracker could be represented in Mason. It contains the basic API data like issue Title, Description and Severity and then it adds hypermedia elements for linking to other related resources and actions for writing stuff back to the issue tracker.

  // Classic API data
  "ID": 1,
  "Title": "Program crashes when pressing ctrl-p",
  "Description": "I pressed ctrl-p and, boom, it crashed.",
  "Severity": 5,
  "Attachments": [
      "Id": 1,
      "Title": "Error report",
      // Hypermedia linking to attachment
      "@links": {
        "self": {
          "href": ""

  // Additional hypermedia links
  "@links": {
    // Hypermedia linking to self
    "self": {
      "href": ""
    // Hypermedia linking to containing project
    "up": {
      "href": "",
      "title": "Containing project"

  // Hypermedia "action" element for creating a new project
  "@actions": {
    "is:project-create": {
      "type": "json",
      "href": "",
      "title": "Create new project",
      "schemaUrl": ""

Those that are familiar with HAL may recognize some parts of the format. That is expected as Mason builds on the ideas from HAL. HAL was never intended to have hypermedia elements for writing stuff so I decided to go for it and design a new format based on HAL.

The Mason specification, online example and stand-alone API explorer are available from

Design goals

My design goals with Mason are:

1. It should be easy to adopt in existing JSON based solutions and have a low barrier of entry for new developers.

2. It should contain hypermedia elements sufficient for both reading and writing data without any out-of-band information.

3. It should contain elements for information directed to client developers for the purpose of improving "API developer experience".

4. It should contain error elements sufficient for most kinds of applications.

5. It should work with JSON when both reading and writing.

Let me dig into each of those design goals one by one.

1. Easy to adopt

A classic JSON payload makes the raw API data directly accessible as JSON object properties. I believe it should be so too when working with hypermedia enabled APIs. So Mason merges hypermedia elements into existing JSON structures. To avoid name collisions Mason property names are prefixed with a '@'.

Mason can be adopted gradually:

Step 1: Change content type to application/vnd.mason+json instead of application/json.

Step 2: Add a @meta property with additional information targeted at client developers.

Step 3: Use links to remove client knowledge of server defined URLs.

Step 4: Use Mason's error format.

Step 5: Use actions to truly decouple client and server implementations.

2. Hypermedia for both reading and writing

Hypermedia has a lot of benefits as I wrote in Among these is the ability to remove a client's dependency on server URL structures using links.

But links are only good for, well, linking resources together - they don't say anything about how to change and modify API data. So Mason adds "actions" for writing API data.

An action defines both target URL, HTTP method and action type (payload encoding). With this information being discoverable at runtime it is no longer necessary to hard code clients with information about HTTP method and how to encode the payload. This means client and server only have to agree on WHICH data to send - not HOW to send it.

3. Information targeted at client developers

One of the great things about hypermedia enabled APIs is the ability to explore the API using a browser of some kind. As I wrote in; Do not underestimate the power of an explorable API. The ability to browse around the data makes it a lot easier for the client developers to build a mental model of the API and its data structures.

And if client developers are browsing the API why not also be able to communicate directly with them? Mason adds a few meta data elements for sending messages directly to the client developers. An API browser should highlight these such that devs can instantly read some documentation and comments about the resource they are currently looking at.

At the same time Mason defines a technique for removing this client developer information from the payload in production.

4. Error handling

By standardizing error handling Mason makes it possible for clients to interact with unknown services and still be able to communicate error conditions clearly to end users.

I have previously discussed error handling here in and apparently that article hit a nerve somewhere because it keeps attracting a lot of attention (for an amateur blogger like me).

5. JSON read/write

One of things that annoys me about the traditional key/value forms based on application/x-www-form-urlencoded is that there are no standards for encoding complex data structures. Neither does it define any standard for encoding booleans, integers and other basic data types. The consequence is that client and server needs to agree on these things before they can start talking about business data - and different servers are surely going to implement different encoding schemes - all in all making life miserable for developers that just want to get stuff done.

By using JSON Mason ensures interoperability on some of the lower levels. JSON defines more types than simple string based key/value formats and handles structures like objects and arrays.

Restricting implementations of Mason to handle JSON only reduces design choices and variations and thus improving the chances of things working out of the box (compared to simple string based key/value formats).

Transcending from web APIs to REST services

Most web APIs today are defined in terms of a single server implementation around which developers build dedicated clients (think "Twitter" or "Facebook"). In such a world clients have a strong coupling to server URL structures, HTTP methods, error formats and other quirks of the API. These APIs were never designed to be implemented by more than one organization (and are for this reason also called "snowflake APIs").

True REST services on the other hand are defined without reference to any specific server implementation. The best known example of this is the ATOM format which enables clients to interact with any ATOM enabled service on the web - no matter who implemented it, where it is hosted or what URL structures it is implemented with. The enabling factor for this is the ATOM media type specification.

But ATOM is restricted to feed-like data and does not fit well with other applications. So other media types are needed and Mason is an attempt to fill out this space. Mason attempts to facilitate complete decoupling from technical implementation details such that clients can discover HOW to interact with service at runtime.

One of my earlier blog posts discussed this problem in more detail:

Data profiles

Mason itself does not prescribe any business specific details. Clients and servers still have to agree on WHAT data to interchange - but Mason do remove the technical coupling on HOW to interchange the data.

Mason depends on profiles to enable clients to know WHAT data they are looking at. You can find an in-depth discussion about it here:

At the time of writing I haven't put profiles into the specification yet.

Further reading

Mason homepage:

Generic Mason browser (API explorer):

Online live example of fictive issue tracker using Mason:


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